References for Brightwork Latin Articles

Executive Summary

  • These are the references that were used for our Latin articles.

Learn why so few entities in the IT space include references in their work. 


This is the reference list for the Latin articles, as well as interesting quotes from these references at Brightwork Research & Analysis.

You can select the article title to be taken to the article.

Reference #1: Article Titled:

The Fake Reconquista: Why A Majority of Mexicans Think The US Southwest Belongs to Mexico



The degree to which atrocities can be papered over, as long as the perpetrator is not white, is found in the following description taken from the article above.

Molly Bassett is an enthusiastic advocate for studying Mesoamerican religion, a welcome new direction in Religious Studies. Bassett rightly notes the preconceptions and prejudices that students typically bring to studies of the Aztecs, among them notions of human sacrifice (which, given divine reciprocity, might be better understood as “human gifting”), cannibalism (or anthropophagy, both actual and metaphorical), and other forms of ambiguous violence.  He outlines radically different conceptions of blood and bodies among Spanish and Aztecs, noting, for example, that Spanish horror at Aztec rituals was shaped by specific Christian beliefs about the sanctity of the blood and body of Christ, human mortality and corporality, ethnocentric perceptions that condition Western consciousness even today. For the Aztecs, flaying humans and wearing their skin inside-out (as was done with the Culhua princess) represented a profoundly different conception of personhood and corporality. Just as a hardcore vegetarian, vegan, or animal rights activist might recoil at a supermarket meat counter or a leather goods shop, Spanish reactions to Aztec practices were conditioned by distinctly non-universal values and beliefs.



Something that came up from the research is that the Mexica contracted a deadly virus in 1545, which is 26 years after the first contact between the Spanish arriving in the region. The quotation below is from the article above.

In 1545 disaster struck Mexico’s Aztec nation when people started coming down with high fevers, headaches and bleeding from the eyes, mouth and nose. Death generally followed in three or four days.

Within five years as many as 15 million people – an estimated 80% of the population – were wiped out in an epidemic the locals named “cocoliztli”. The word means pestilence in the Aztec Nahuatl language. Its cause, however, has been questioned for nearly 500 years. “The 1545-50 cocoliztli was one of many epidemics to affect Mexico after the arrival of Europeans, but was specifically the second of three epidemics that were most devastating and led to the largest number of human losses,” said Åshild Vågene of the University of Tuebingen in Germany. “The cause of this epidemic has been debated for over a century by historians and now we are able to provide direct evidence through the use of ancient DNA to contribute to a longstanding historical question.” The outbreak is considered one of the deadliest epidemics in human history, approaching the Black Death bubonic plague that killed 25 million people in western Europe in the 14th century – about half the regional population.

European colonisers spread disease as they ventured into the new world, bringing germs local populations had never encountered and lacked immunity against.

The 1545 cocoliztli pestilence in what is today Mexico and part of Guatemala came just two decades after a smallpox epidemic killed an estimated 5-8 million people in the immediate wake of the Spanish arrival. “In the cities and large towns, big ditches were dug, and from morning to sunset the priests did nothing else but carry the dead bodies and throw them into the ditches,” is how Franciscan historian Fray Juan de Torquemada is cited as chronicling the period.

“We tested for all bacterial pathogens and DNA viruses for which genomic data is available,” and salmonella enterica was the only germ detected, said co-author Alexander Herbig, also from Tuebingen University.


Although the Aztec had the superior numbers, advanced Spanish weaponry ultimately gave them the upper hand. With firearms and steel blades at his disposal, just one Spaniard might annihilate dozens or even hundreds of opponents: “On a sudden, they speared and thrust people into shreds,” wrote one indigenous chronicler, having witnessed the terrifying impact of European arms. “Others were beheaded in one swipe… Others tried to run in vain from the butchery, their innards falling from them and entangling their very feet.”

About Cortez

Throughout his career, Cortés’s personal life held a selfish, manipulative streak. In 1514 he married a young Spanish woman named Catalina Suárez, a relative of Governor Diego Velázquez, who soon promoted Cortés after the wedding. But Cortés was not faithful. After the conquest of Mexico, he and Malinche, an Aztec woman who served as his interpreter, had a son together. The marriage to Caralina only ended when she was found dead under mysterious circumstances in 1522. Cortés was suspected of her murder, but nevery charged. Cortés then took as a consort Princess Isabel Moctezuma, the Aztec emperor’s daughter. She and Cortés had a daughter, but he later abandoned them. In 1529 Cortés took a Spanish noblewoman, Juana de Zúñiga, as his bride and became a marquis, securing both a high social status and a rather rakish reputation.

It is curious to learn of what side knew what and when…and also what information Cortez was sharing with the Spanish about his progress.

Moctezuma was soon taken hostage on November 14, 1519, as a safety measure by the vastly outnumbered Spanish. Another reason for his sudden capture was news that Moctezuma received from one of his messengers. It was reported to Moctezuma that at least eight hundred more Spaniards in thirteen great ships had arrived on the coast. Moctezuma received this information a few days before Cortés did. Cortés had been communicating to the crown that he had the entire situation under control and was practically running the city of Tenochtitlan.

Reference #2: Article Titled:

About Buenos Aires Fantastic and Concerning Quotes

Reference #3: Article Titled:

About Chile

This article yet to be written, I was organizing sources and quotes for the article. Some of the quotes were so interesting, that just reading them brought a number of surprises.

I’ve lived in Chile for five years now and I can tell you that these people have a culture of theft. It is a sport with them and if they can get “one up” on you by ripping you off while you back is turned, they will. It seems even the most “trustworthy” of them feel entitled to boost whatever is not nailed down. There is a lot of social/economic disparity in Chile and the lower class feels entitled to whatever they can get their hands on. That attitude permeates on up to the middle class. Never trust a Chilean. They are two-faced, treacherous, low-life scum.


I agree with Brian 100%, he is spot on, take it from someone who was born in that forsaken country. Every time I’ve gone there on vacation someone has either robbed me or wronged me. Chile is a country of con artists and thieves. Yes, there is crime here in the US but per capita that country is full of criminals. Their laws are flawed and there are many,many criminals walking around with open cases.

Reference #4: Article Titled:

About Buenos Aires Fantastic and Concerning Quotes


Reference #4: Article Titled:

Why Latin American Culture is So Dysfunctional