Is a Lack of Business Process Reengineering the Reason ERP Projects Fail?

Executive Summary

  • We cover a quotation from Panorama on ERP failure, which caused us to analyze the history of reengineering.

Introduction

We were recently reading the report by Panorama on ERP Software Report. While we overall liked the report, we came across a quotation that points in one direction regarding ERP project failure, but we think actually points in a different direction.

We will be evaluating in this article regarding whether BPR or business process re-engineering and organizational change management are why ERP projects fail.

The Quotation from Panorama on ERP Failure

“Project success won’t have anything to do with technical features, rather it will come down to how well you handle business process reengineering (BPR) and OCM – the most important success factors for any ERP implementation. We often hear organizations say the biggest obstacle to the success of their ERP initiative was misalignment between project management and change management. Often, people involved think they should have invested more in change management, sponsorship, and resourcing.”

Understanding the Actual History of Reengineering

To begin, the concept of re-engineering has always been a bit of a scam. Reengineering fell out of favor in the very early 1990s as was a movement that was based on a book by Hammer and Champy that was a best seller, but not based upon any actual evidence. ERP companies pushed reengineering, paying Michael Hammer up to $100,000 per day to speak because they saw it as a way to sell ERP software.

We covered re-engineering as a blatant falsehood that was promoted by ERP vendors (and strategy consulting companies who also could not have cared less if the basic tenants of re-engineering were true) that used it as a convenient cover to distract observers from the generic functionality they were offering customers. Nothing proposed by re-engineering came true.

  • Companies that engaged in re-engineering projects spent a lot of money on consultants who told them they needed to change their requirements.
  • A lot of strategy documentation was sold.
  • Companies ended up with poorly fitted ERP systems for their requirements that then had to be customized.

Reengineering died, but it was never appropriately critiqued for being a mindless cash grab, and a method to trick executives with poor reasoning skills into buying poorly matched software, and for imposing a massive unpredicted customization effort on these companies.

You can read about this history of re-engineering in the article Reengineering and Its Impact on ERP Sales.

The 2018 Panorama study showed a decline in several factors related to ERP satisfaction. However, this factor of BPR and OCM should have been similar in previous years.

What is Actually True?

One proposal is that everything else stayed the same, but companies did not align their project management and change management particularly recently. That may or may not be true. But I could not find anywhere in the report where it said that factor changed.

Furthermore, the statement by Panaorama, while certainly partially true, seems overly stated. It is impossible to see how functionality limitations cannot have been issues that lead to project failure. Many ERP projects get caught in extensive and unplanned customizations that blow the budget and the timeline and result in companies biting off more than they can chew. It is very common for the RICEF list to grow beyond the company’s willingness to fund the list, requiring an extensive back and forth process where customizations and enhancements, reports, and integrations must be culled.

If the functionality they needed had existed, or if they had been told the truth, that would not occur. A primary reason for this is that they are mislead as to the entire “best practice”/BPR construct. We can say this confidently as there is evidence from many public projects to draw on that point to other factors outside of BPR and OCM. For instance, there are many cases where the software is the culprit or consulting company is the culprit. Let us talk about two examples.

The Oracle Air Force ERP Failure

In the $ billion Oracle Air Force debacle, the central point of failure was the lie that Oracle’s standard functionality could replace a very large number of custom military systems. Change management would not have been the issue because Oracle’s ERP does not do specialized military functions. ($ billion sounds like a lot of money until you realize its only the TCO of around 2 F-35s, which are also useless items that the Air Force purchased…so loosely translated, another day at the office for the US Air Force.)

Process Industry ERP Implementations

In another example, ERP systems are often sold into process industry, but they lack the functionality to manage process industry manufacturing. There are very few ERP systems that have this functionality, ProcessPro being one of the few. But salespeople from ERP vendors will frequently misrepresent their functionality to customers as covering all industries equally well — so again, in this case, it is not BPR, because it is an extensive series of gaps in functionality.

There you go, try to BPR your way out of using a non-process industry ERP system for a process industry manufacturing environment. Talk about a “recipe” for failure. Of course, another option would be actually to select an ERP system that has process industry functionality. However, that would take bit of work, and Deloitte and Accenture will recommend against doing this because….well they have SAP and Oracle ERP resources that they need to bill for to maintain the lifestyles of their partners. 

Now after this project bombs, what will Deloitte and Accenture say? Oh right, the real failure of the project was due to the inflexibility of the customer to do BPR. The major IT implementation companies are in agreement that companies should buy applications that are the absolute worst fit for their requirements so that they can keep a narrow set of vendor specialties in-house.

Imagine if these companies had to staff consultants for many different vendors? It would be absolute pandemonium!

How the Coverage of IT Failures is Dictated by IT Media Funding from Software Vendors and Consulting Companies

The vendors and consulting companies provide most of the funding to the IT media entities, and therefore IT media has taken the position that project failures are mostly the fault of customers, with a lack of BPR being a primary talking point. If they were paid by customers, they would switch their reporting, but they have no other source of income than the IT software and service providers. Media companies like ComputerWeekly are not real media outlets in the normal sense of the word, but are fronts for marketing automation, collecting emails from articles which are then shared as lead generation for vendors and consulting companies as we covered in the article How Computer Weekly is a Front for Marketing Automation.

Vendors and consultancies, get in touch with ComputerWeekly, IDG, Forbes…etc., they have a “media plan” for you. They aren’t journalists; they are your “media partners.” Forbes and IDG are owned by Chinese conglomerates, that is owned by conglomerates out of a country that has never known freedom of speech laws and where honest journalism is synonymous with prison. (You go into a Chinese prison, you don’t look the same when you come out.) However, nevertheless, whatever storyline you want to push, the IT “media” entities, now deprived of any subscription revenue because of Google and the Internet are there for you to publish any falsehood that you can afford. But be careful, you have to bid against the largest vendors and consultancies in your space. 

Industry specialists are funded by major vendors to promote the concept of the responsibility for failure being the customer. SAP has a specific strategy for allocating the blame to customers after a lawsuit breaks, which we have covered in the following article titled The Art of Blaming the Client When the Project Goes South.

The Problem with the Expectations of BPR/OCM and Cloud ERP

Now let us look at the cloud for a moment.

Multitenant cloud means no customizations. That works for simpler systems like CRM and HR, but it has been an unanswered question regarding its applicability to ERP.

But overall, this attempt to do cloud ERP may mean a stronger push to not do customizations and to do more BPR. However, the central hypothesis around not doing customizations is based on what is a false assumption, that all best practices are contained in the ERP system. We analyzed and rejected SAP’s claims of its systems containing best practices in the article How Valid are SAP’s Best Practice Claims?

This concept of best practices has been proposed for decades and is both incorrect, but insulting to anyone who has exposure to ERP systems and to business processes. It is something a salesperson would say who has never been on a project. Furthermore, the entire concept of best practices has already been summarily contradicted by large numbers of academic papers. Therefore the right interpretation of when a person states “my software contains best practices,” is “I am going to trick you.”

Fake Best Practices

ERP systems are not “filled with best practices.” This is a carefully conceived fallacy to get companies to accept functionality that is not a fit for customers because that is what ERP vendors have to offer. Loosely translated your apartment may have space for a two seated couch, but if the furniture salesperson only has three seated couches in stock, then three seated couches are “the best practice.”

The Example of Poor Quality MRP Functionality in ERP Systems

If we take a foundational are of functionality as an example, I am not satisfied with how a single ERP system I have worked with performs MRP. I have been recommending performing MRP in external systems for quite some time and sending the results to ERP to perform all the commits. I can take the MRP run of any ERP system and produce better output and a better planning process with a specialized external planning system. Therefore not only is MRP not a best practice in ERP systems, but it is also functionality to be replaced.

Customization as a Necessity for ERP Systems

Even the largest ERP systems like ECC must be customized — because what you are buying in most cases is just a big batch of generic functionality, with a veneer that it will “work for anyone.” But, if companies are being sold the concept that they can’t customize because of multitenancy, and the idea is that the customer will have to “BPR their way out of every custom requirement” then that will hurt implementations. As soon as multitenancy is broken (that is a copy of the ERP system is made that can be customized) now the solution is no longer cloud, but simply hosted, and many of the benefits of cloud go out the window.

The Panorama report does not say this, but it is an interesting question how much the cloud (no customization) ERP implementations are running into reality. We can only speak to SAP as that is our main focus area and the only vendor we do research extensive project research on and have private data points to draw from. However, SAP is not having success with ERP cloud. The customers they do have on cloud are tiny customers that don’t have customizations, and in fact don’t even need an ERP system (SAP consultancies, etc..)

Faking the Cloud Until You “Make” The Cloud

SAP is pretending to have cloud ERP business to keep Wall Street happy and to make it seem they are “hip and cool.” Estimates from my sources indicate that SAP is probably not making any money on cloud ERP.

Conclusion

The observation of the reason for failure could end up being inaccurate. Therefore the reason for failure on ERP projects can very simply be purposefully misidentified as BPR, (the vendor and consulting company friendly conclusion) when the actual problem was there was no possible way for the company to have performed BPR around the limitations of the ERP functionality due to the requirement being an absolute necessity.

This can be viewed as a desirable conclusion for the individuals filling out such a survey as it obscures their responsibility from performing a well-informed software selection.

ERP Contact Form

  • Want Honest Information about ERP?

    It is difficult for most companies to make improvements in ERP without outside advice. And it is close to impossible to get honest ERP advice from large consulting companies. We offer remote unbiased multi-dimension ERP support.

    • We have a better track record of being correct than any of the well-known brands.
    • If this type of accuracy interests you, tell us your question below.

Brightwork Explorer for ERP Parameters

How to Tune ERP Systems

ERP applications require MRP parameters to be optimized externally to the ERP system. Having analyzed many ERP systems, we developed the Brightwork MRP & S&OP Explorer. It is free to access until it sees “serious usage” and is free for students and academics. Click the image to find out more.

References

The Real Story on ERP

ERPThe Real Story Behind ERP: Separating Fiction From Reality

How This Book is Structured

This book combines a meta-analysis of all of the academic research on the benefits of ERP, coupled with on project experience.

ERP has had a remarkable impact on most companies that implemented it. Unplanned expenses for customization, failed implementations, integration, and applications to meet the business requirements that ERP could not–have added up to a higher Total Cost of Ownership for ERP were all unexpected, and account control, on the part of ERP vendors — is now a significant issue affecting IT performance.

Break the Bank for ERP?

Many companies that have broken the bank to implement ERP projects have seen their KPIs go down— but the question is why this is the case. Major consulting companies are some of the largest promoters of ERP systems, but given the massive profits they make on ERP implementations — can they be trusted to provide the real story on ERP? Probably not, however, written by the Managing Editor of SCM Focus, Shaun Snapp — an author with many years of experience with ERP system. A supply chain software expert and well known for providing authentic information on the topics he covers, you can trust this book to provide all the detail that no consulting firm will.

By reading this book you will:

  • Examine the high failure rates of ERP implementations.
  • Demystify the convincing arguments ERP vendors use to sell ERP.
  • See how ERP vendors take control of client accounts with ERP.
  • Understand why single-instance ERP is not typically feasible.
  • Calculate the total cost of ownership and return on investment for your ERP implementation.
  • Understand the alternatives to ERP.

Chapters

  • Chapter 1: Introduction to ERP Software
  • Chapter 2: The History of ERP
  • Chapter 3: Logical Fallacies and the Logics Used to Sell ERP
  • Chapter 4: The Best Practice Logic for ERP
  • Chapter 5: The Integration Benefits Logic for ERP
  • Chapter 6: Analyzing The Logic Used to Sell ERP
  • Chapter 7: The High TCO and Low ROI of ERP
  • Chapter 8: ERP and the Problem with Institutional Decision Making
  • Chapter 9: How ERP Creates Redundant Systems
  • Chapter 10: How ERP Distracts Companies from Implementing Better Functionality
  • Chapter 11: Alternatives to ERP or Adjusting the Current ERP System
  • Chapter 12: Conclusion

Five Surprising Takeaways from the 2018 ERP Software Report

How to Understand Reengineering and its Impact on ERP Sales

What This Article Covers

  • Reengineering and Michael Hammer & James Champy
  • Michael Hammer & James Champy Foundational Assumption Regarding IT
  • Reengineering and ERP as Natural Bedfellows
  • Some Interesting Questions to Consider About Re-engineering
  • The Evidence for Re-engineering Being the Elixer for IT Improvement
  • The Reality of Post ERP Sales
  • ERP Vendors and Consulting Companies Unite!
  • Taking the Re-engineering Application Test
  • Reengineering and Digital Transformation

Introduction

Different people have covered reengineering in depth from the process perspective. However, the issue is that the re-engineering was a major trope which was used to justify ERP systems. One vendor, SAP incorporated reengineering in a major way to cover up limitations in its software.

In this article, we will cover the self-serving nature of re-engineering and ERP.

Reengineering and Michael Hammer & James Champy

Michael Hammer and James Champy produced the book Reengineering.

No understanding of re-engineering can be understood without understanding this book.

One quite representative quotation was the following:

“The usual methods for boosting performance—process rationalization and automation—haven’t yielded the dramatic improvements companies need. In particular, heavy investments in information technology have delivered disappointing results—largely because companies tend to use technology to mechanize old ways of doing business. They leave the existing processes intact and use computers simply to speed them up.”

Michael Hammer & James Champy Foundational Assumption Regarding IT

Hammer & Champy’s assumption was that..

  1. The present business process used by the company was inadequate and needed to be redesigned.
  2. Furthermore, the failure to do this is why IT investments have delivered disappointing results

I have to say, having worked on quite a few projects myself, I do not share this interpretation. And if I think of SAP ECC, I don’t recall anywhere that the application was really pushing “the envelope.” The reason being that ERP systems contain quite generic functionality.

But the functionality that was included in the ERP systems could never meet every requirement in the business.

  • Pushing Generic Functionality: What have seen on ERP projects is the term best practices and re-engineering used to justify moving to generic functionality within SAP.
  • Removing that “Awful” Legacy: There was absolutely nothing in the functionality that was better than the functionality it was replacing in “legacy.” It was just what SAP had to offer. So, of course, it was “great.”

And because SAP and the consulting company wanted the “client” to use the system, they told the customer that the way they were doing it was wrong (not a best practice) and that they needed to change to how SAP did things.

What a surprise that the “right answer” was contained in SAP.

  • The Unpopular Reality: In reality, many processes simply can’t use SAP ECC or other ERP functionality.
  • Mass Customization: This is where customization and custom programming came in. For a standard system with “best practices” around 92% of SAP implementations became either highly or moderately customized. And at virtually every account, the amount of customization necessary greatly exceeded the estimate.

Over and over SAP told companies to redesign their processes and use SAP’s standard functionality, but it simply was not feasible for the vast majority of functionality. A massive industry built up around coding in the highly inefficient SAP ABAP coding language to place these customer processes into SAP. This was covered in the article Why Did Customers Listen to SAP on ABAP and Coding Tools? 

And when SAP recently introduced a new ERP version with a new table structure which broke all the previous customizations, SAP again pushed the narrative as this being not a bad thing, but an “opportunity” to review if these customizations were actually necessary.

Reengineering and ERP as Natural Bedfellows

  • ERP is based upon a basic exaggeration of the degree to which the application fits with the requirements of a company.
  • During the ERP sales process, the sales team will normally try to present the idea that any requirement the company has can be met by the application.

This is how you win the sale.

You make the software seem to be easier and smoother to implement than your competitor. It is extremely difficult to not get caught up in the misrepresentation of software to prospects. As a presales consultant, you constantly work with salespeople who have a 100% focus to make sales. But there is too much competition in enterprise software to make sales by telling 100% of the truth. It is very easy to begin focusing on the incentives of salespeople and to be sucked into oversimplifying the implementation work necessary. And if you do not provide the positive information that the salesperson desires, they will provide you with negative feedback if they see you interfering with making a sale.

In enterprise software sales, the presales consultant is part of the sales organization and is reviewed by salespeople. And I say this as a person with many years of SAP implementation experience and as a person who worked as a contractor (rather than an employee) and had other work I could switch to. Most presales resources do not have this and most presales resources are full-time employees of the software vendor, so for them, it is even more difficult to resist the pull of the salesperson. They serve at the pleasure of the account executive.

This means that ERP vendors sales teams compete to make their offering seem like the best fit. Now this same issue applies to other software categories as well. It applies to a more extreme degree to ERP because ERP was always sold with the underlying concept of being able to cover the broadest number of requirements that the company had.

And which software vendor has the biggest interest in promoting changing or “re-engineering” your business processes?

The vendor with the weakest match between its software and the customer’s business requirements of course.

Some Interesting Questions to Consider About Re-engineering

All of this brings up some interesting questions.

  • Question 1: ERP vendors greatly benefited from Hammer & Champy’s messaging. Did any ERP vendor pay for Hammer and Champy to speak at conferences or otherwise use their resources to magnify the reengineering message?
  • Question 2: Did the consulting companies care whether re-engineering was true, or did they ride the wave?

You can guess for yourself what the answer to these questions probably was.

The Evidence for Re-engineering Being the Elixer for IT Improvement

The problem with Hammer & Champy’s hypothesis is that they never proved it to be true.

They merely asserted it. And asserting it, along with the financial incentives of those who wanted the message repeated was enough to have it accepted as true.

However, let us pull back for a moment to look at the question re-engineering was addressing.

A lack of IT payback has always been a problem with IT implementations. I have my own views as to why the payback has been disappointing. I several reasons, but if I had to bet money, my primary hypothesis would be that vendors like SAP and the large consulting companies overpromise and increase the cost of software implementation projects such that the ROI becomes quite frequently negative. I covered this in detail in the article How Vendors and Consulting Companies Parasitized the ROI of Enterprise Software. This is another explanation and I have much more evidence for it than was ever presented by Hammer and Champy for their hypothesis. It is unclear to me why Hammer & Champy’s explanation was so compelling.

Care to take a guess as to why IT investments tend to be disappointing? Many people have tried, and as far as I am aware, Hammer and Champy are not considered to have solved this puzzle. So why was an unproven hypothesis carried forward to the four corners of the world? 

The most logical explanation I can think of is that it was a compelling message for ERP vendors and for consulting companies, so it was the message that was paid to be repeated.

For some reason, I don’t expect to find SAP or Deloitte or Accenture paying to amplify this hypothesis.

The Reality of Post ERP Sales

Reengineering was and is a concept (although its popularity has certainly declined) that help both sell the ERP system, and cover up for the lack of coverage of requirements that eventually became apparent once the requirements had been gathered and the time came to configure the requirements into the application.

Reengineering was used by SAP in conjunction with the concept of best practices to essentially convince customers to use the software as standard as possible. And that within this “standard” contained best practices. Now there was never any evidence that these were best practices. It was simply a self-bestowed title. Much like me saying..

“I am the best dancer in Atlanta.”

Actually, it is even worse than self-proclaimed titles of being the best dancer in a particular city, as there is no competition you can enter to determine if something is a best practice. At least dancing competitions exist.

This was consistent with what SAP and other ERP vendors tended to do to dismiss whatever existed inside their customers and built up whatever they had to offer.

  1. Legacy: The term legacy, which is pejorative, was used by SAP to dismiss any system that existed inside of the customer that was not SAP. This is explained in the article How SAP Misused the Term Legacy. Existing systems are legacy by vendors trying to sell software in the same way that furniture is out of date in people’s homes by people trying to sell new furniture.
  2. Best Practices: SAP took the best of whatever process they ran into and put it into their software — well that was the official story. But as an SAP researcher, it is also the case that SAP lies a lot. And as a long time SAP consultant, I can say I never witnessed any best practices inside of SAP’s numerous applications. But how SAP used the term best practices to gain business is covered in the article The Evidence Against SAP’s Best Practice Claims.

ERP Vendors and Consulting Companies Unite!

  • What both the ERP vendors and consulting companies wanted to do was bill hours. And you can’t really bill hours by keeping things the same.
  • Therefore, the argument for change is something that software vendors and consulting companies tend to accept quite readily. Whenever something means a change, you can count the consulting companies “in.”

Who were the major promoters of reengineering — ERP vendors and consulting companies. And who were the major beneficiaries of reengineering — ERP vendors and consulting companies.

And oh yes, this was lucrative for them as the following quotation from Thomas Davenport, someone deeply involved with the re-engineering trend attests.

“No one wants to see 25-year-old MBAs in their first year of consulting making $80,000 per year with $30,000 signing bonuses, being billed out at six times their salaries, putting the company’s veterans through their paces like they’re just another group of idiots who “can’t think out of the box.””

A feeding frenzy was underway. Major consulting firms could routinely bill clients at $1 million per month, and keep their strategists, operations experts, and system developers busy for years.

For their part, executives had to show financial benefits – especially at those consulting rates. The fastest way to show financial results was to reduce headcount.”

Thomas Davenport goes on to explain why reengineering became such a fad, and it fits with financial bias.

“How did reengineering go from a decent idea in 1989 to a $51 billion industry in 1995? Chalk it up to the rise of the Reengineering Industrial Complex. Just as the concept of re-engineering wove together three previously unrelated strands, its application brought together an iron triangle of powerful interest groups: top managers at big companies, big-time management consultants, and big-league information technology vendors.”

Conclusion

Reengineering died as a fad over two decades ago. It bears the markings of many other fads.

  • Step 1: A Kernel of Truth: It begins with a kernel of truth (yes, it makes sense to design processes around value add).
  • Step 2: Jumping on The Bandwagon: Entities that can make money from it jump on the bandwagon and begin to repeat the messaging. At this point brand name companies are thrown out that have benefited from the fad.
  • Step 3: The Association Phase: The fad begins showing up on resumes, certifications begin to become available to be prominently displayed in offices and cubicles (belts, ribbons, medals and merit badges are handed out with aplomb!)
  • Step 4: The Implementation Phase: It promptly becomes an excuse for whatever one wants to do. Whatever change initiative the company had before, are renamed to the new fad.

Reengineering no longer has the cache it once did, so now one must introduce the redesign under the rubric of Six Sigma.

Business trends come and go, and I don’t have a particular interest in them as there are always lemmings to jump on the next new “hot thing.”

However, the interesting thing to me as a researcher is that in a way, reengineering lives on as a way to justify software that is a poor match for business requirements.

To see why take a look at the following test.

Taking the Re-engineering Application Test

Imagine two software vendors:

  1. Software Vendor A: This vendor has a very high match between its functionality and the business requirements of a prospect.
  2. Software Vendor B: This vendor has a low match between its functionality and the business requirements of a prospect.

Now close your eyes and answer this question.

Which vendor is going to be more supportive of the prospect engaging in “re-engineering” to successfully purchase and implement their application?

Conclusion

Ironically, in our application risk ratings, we concluded that the highest predictive element for software success was the match between business requirements and the functionality of the application. Yet, re-engineering works against this. Re-engineering justifies purchasing applications that are a poor fit for customer requirements under the principle that the process can be re-engineered.

In this way, at least in the ERP realm, re-engineering qualifies as fool’s gold. And while re-engineering washed out, in a way at least a similar concept has been renamed as digital transformation. Digital transformation is a curious term as it is utterly false if used to describe modern IT implementations. Why is the term reengineering not used? Terms are changed when they lose credibility.

ERP Contact Form

  • Want Honest Information about ERP?

    It is difficult for most companies to make improvements in ERP without outside advice. And it is close to impossible to get honest ERP advice from large consulting companies. We offer remote unbiased multi-dimension ERP support.

    • We have a better track record of being correct than any of the well-known brands.
    • If this type of accuracy interests you, tell us your question below.

Brightwork Explorer for ERP Parameters

How to Tune ERP Systems

ERP applications require MRP parameters to be optimized externally to the ERP system. Having analyzed many ERP systems, we developed the Brightwork MRP & S&OP Explorer. It is free to access until it sees “serious usage” and is free for students and academics. Click the image to find out more.

References

The Real Story on ERP

ERPThe Real Story Behind ERP: Separating Fiction From Reality

How This Book is Structured

This book combines a meta-analysis of all of the academic research on the benefits of ERP, coupled with on project experience.

ERP has had a remarkable impact on most companies that implemented it. Unplanned expenses for customization, failed implementations, integration, and applications to meet the business requirements that ERP could not–have added up to a higher Total Cost of Ownership for ERP were all unexpected, and account control, on the part of ERP vendors — is now a significant issue affecting IT performance.

Break the Bank for ERP?

Many companies that have broken the bank to implement ERP projects have seen their KPIs go down— but the question is why this is the case. Major consulting companies are some of the largest promoters of ERP systems, but given the massive profits they make on ERP implementations — can they be trusted to provide the real story on ERP? Probably not, however, written by the Managing Editor of SCM Focus, Shaun Snapp — an author with many years of experience with ERP system. A supply chain software expert and well known for providing authentic information on the topics he covers, you can trust this book to provide all the detail that no consulting firm will.

By reading this book you will:

  • Examine the high failure rates of ERP implementations.
  • Demystify the convincing arguments ERP vendors use to sell ERP.
  • See how ERP vendors take control of client accounts with ERP.
  • Understand why single-instance ERP is not typically feasible.
  • Calculate the total cost of ownership and return on investment for your ERP implementation.
  • Understand the alternatives to ERP.

Chapters

  • Chapter 1: Introduction to ERP Software
  • Chapter 2: The History of ERP
  • Chapter 3: Logical Fallacies and the Logics Used to Sell ERP
  • Chapter 4: The Best Practice Logic for ERP
  • Chapter 5: The Integration Benefits Logic for ERP
  • Chapter 6: Analyzing The Logic Used to Sell ERP
  • Chapter 7: The High TCO and Low ROI of ERP
  • Chapter 8: ERP and the Problem with Institutional Decision Making
  • Chapter 9: How ERP Creates Redundant Systems
  • Chapter 10: How ERP Distracts Companies from Implementing Better Functionality
  • Chapter 11: Alternatives to ERP or Adjusting the Current ERP System
  • Chapter 12: Conclusion

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Business_process_reengineering

https://www.fastcompany.com/26310/fad-forgot-people

https://hbr.org/1990/07/reengineering-work-dont-automate-obliterate