How to Best Understand PutAway and Goods Receipt

Executive Summary

  • There is a putaway, and goods receipts which involve the confirmed goods received post goods issue and post goods receipt.
  • There is also a putaway process.

 

Introduction to the Putaway Process

A goods receipt is the process of receiving goods into a facility. A goods receipt is performed both physically and in the computer system. Receiving goods is part of one of the major processes in a warehouse and factory. In this article, we will cover the goods receipt from multiple dimensions.

Goods Delivery the Putaway Process and Goods Receipt, Received Goods and Goods Received

The putaway process is the activity in a warehouse or factory of taking the stock and “putting it away” into the stocking bins, or otherwise repositioning the stock into the facility. The putaway process takes the stock from a staging area, and moving the goods received its final storage location.

The costs or impacts of increased frequency of goods delivery on putaway, goods receipt, received goods and goods received costs are something to consider, that is nearly always ignored by proponents of JIT.

Loading Bay or Loading Dock and the Staging Area and Storage Location

The received goods are taken in from the loading bay or loading dock either to two potential areas in the facility. One is to the staging area to the final storage location. One can skip the staging area and take the received goods directly to the last storage location.

Confirmed Goods Received, Confirm Goods Receipt, Receipt of Goods and Inventory Receipt

  • Part of the goods receipt to confirmed goods received is the confirmation of the receipt of goods and the inventory receipt.
  • So confirmed goods receipt and confirmed goods receipt is part of the result of the goods issue and goods receipt process.
  • This confirmation to confirm goods received is to mean a “receipt” generated. The receipt process transfers the ownership between entities.
  • The receipt signifies the movement of the material from one set of books to another. However, in the computer age, little of these receipts are paper.

Post Goods Issue and Post Goods Receipt

Posting goods issue is the computer reaction to the physical goods receipt process. When you post goods issue, the inventory decrements (increases) by the goods receipt amount. Goods receipt, which increments the inventory works the same way but in reverse.

Post goods issue or goods post receipt will typically have a lead time associated with it. This means that the goods issue or goods receipt and the inventory do not increment or decrement until the lead time has passed.

The Receiving Department and the Shipping Department

Goods receipt and goods issues are managed by the receiving department, which is contrary to the shipping department.

Conclusion

Goods issue and goods receipt are two sides of the same coin. This the movement of goods both physically between buildings or locations and the accounting entry, which records the receipt of goods. The confirmed goods received that is placed into both the receiving system and the issuing system.

This the movement of goods both physically between buildings or locations and the accounting entry which records the receipt of goods. The goods issue and goods receipt process are not instantaneous which is where both goods issue and goods receipt lead times are used.

What We Do and Research Access

Using the Diagram

Hover over each bullet or plus sign to see more explanation. To move to a different bullet point, just “hover off” and then hover over the new bullet.

References

Lean and Reorder Point Planning Book


Lean and Reorder Point 2

Lean and Reorder Point Planning: Implementing the Approach the Right Way in Software

A Lost Art of Reorder Point Setting?

Setting reorder points is a bit of a lost art as company after company over-rely upon advanced supply planning methods to create the supply plan. Proponents of Lean are often in companies trying to get a movement to Lean. However, how does one implement Lean in software?

Implementing Lean in Software

All supply planning applications have “Lean” controls built within them. And there are in fact some situations where reorder points will provide a superior output. With supply planning, even within a single company, it is not one size fits all. The trick is understanding when to deploy each of the approaches available in software that companies already own.

Are Reorder Points Too Simple?

Reorder points are often considered to be simplistic, but under the exact circumstances, they work quite well.

There are simply a great number of misunderstandings regarding reorder points – misunderstandings that this book helps clear up.

Rather than “picking a side,” this book shows the advantages and disadvantages of each.

  • Understand the Lean Versus the MRP debate.
  • How Lean relates to reordering points.
  • Understand when to use reorder points.
  • When to use reorder points versus MRP.
  • The relationship between forecastability and reorder points.
  • How to mix Lean/re-order points and MRP to more efficiently perform supply planning.

Chapters

  • Chapter 1: Introduction
  • Chapter 2: The Lean versus MRP Debate.
  • Chapter 3: Where Supply Planning Fits Within The Supply Plan
  • Chapter 4: Reorder Point Planning
  • Chapter 5: Lean Planning.
  • Chapter 6: Where Lean and Reorder Points are Applicable
  • Chapter 7: Determining When to use Lean Versus MRP
  • Chapter 8: Mixing Lean and Reorder Points with MRP-Type Planning

How To Use ABC Inventory Classification

Executive Summary

  • ABC classification or ABC inventory is a way of segmenting inventory so that the product location combinations can be managed.
  • We cover how ABC classification works and how it compares to other comparative methods of segmentation.

Introduction to ABC Classification

ABC classification is probably the most common way of performing the segmentation of an inventory database. In this article, we will find all about ABC classification.

ABC Classification, ABC Inventory or ABC Inventory Classification

One way of looking at inventory is by ABC classification, ABC inventory or ABC inventory classification. ABC classification is where inventory is segmented by valuation or volume or both. ABC inventory classification sets up three divisions or segments.

  • A Items: These are the products or the product location combinations that are the most expensive, and or that have the highest sales.
  • B Items: These are the products or the product location combinations that are the medium expensive, and or that have a medium level of sales.
  • C Items: These are the products or the product location combinations that are the least expensive, and or that have the lowest sales.

ABC Analysis, ABC Analysis of Inventory

To use ABC classification, an ABC analysis or ABC analysis of inventory is necessary.

Some ERP systems like SAP ECC have transactions where this can be automatically calculated, and this is one reason that explains why ABC classification, ABC inventory or ABC inventory classification are so frequently used.

ABC analysis or ABC analysis of inventory is not as straightforward as it sounds. If only sales quantities are used, then the most important items, which are often the highest sales priced items are not captured. If only sales dollar amounts are used, then the volume is left out. If the volume X sales price is used, then the highest value items will dominate the ABC inventory results.

ABC Inventory Control

There is no ABC inventory control “setting” in supply planning systems. Rather ABC inventory control is simply controlling inventory by the ABC analysis of inventory. For instance, one could set C items to be consumption planned while A and B items would be driven by the forecast.

There are many examples, but it would simply mean changing the settings in the supply planning system to correspond to ABC.

Conclusion

Therefore ABC analysis of inventory is much easier to talk about in the abstract than it is to implement. In US companies for every one worker who performs the calculation, there may be 5 or 6 people throwing the term around and offering their opinion on it. Books that cover ABC inventory analysis will almost always underestimate the difficulty in using ABC inventory classification.

What We Do and Research Access

Using the Diagram

Hover over each bullet or plus sign to see more explanation. To move to a different bullet point, just “hover off” and then hover over the new bullet.

References

I cover inventory and safety stock in the following book.

Safety Stock and Service Level Book

Safety Stock

Safety Stock and Service Levels: A New Approach

Important Features About Safety Stock

Safety stock is one of the most commonly discussed topics in supply chain management. Every MRP application and every advanced planning application on the market has either a field for safety stock or can calculate safety stock. However, companies continue to struggle with the right level to set it. Service levels are strongly related to safety stock. However, companies also struggle with how to set service levels.

How Systems Set Safety Stock

The vast majority of systems allow the setting of safety stock by multiple means (static, dynamic, adjustable with the forecast in days’ supply, etc..). However, most systems do not allow the safety stock to be set in a way that is considerate of the inventory that is available to be applied.By reading this book you will:

  • Understand the concepts and formula used for safety stock and service level setting.
  • Common ways of setting safety stock.
  • Service levels and inventory optimization applications.
  • The best real ways of setting both service levels and safety stock.

Chapters

Chapter 1: Introduction
Chapter 2: Safety Stock and Service Levels from a Conceptual Perspective
Chapter 3: The Common Ways of Setting Safety Stock
Chapter 4: The Common Issues with Safety Stock
Chapter 5: Common Issues with Service Level Setting
Chapter 6: Service Level Agreement
Chapter 7: Safety Stock and Service Levels in Inventory Optimization and Multi-Echelon Software
Chapter 8: A Simpler Approach to Comprehensively Setting Safety Stock and Service Levels

How to Best Understand Inventory Planning

Executive Summary

  • Inventory planning differs from supply chain execution.
  • We cover the major aspects of inventory planning.

Introduction

This article will provide an overview of many topics related to inventory planning, stock planning, and inventory, and stock inventory.

How to Best Understand Supply Chain Inventory

In supply planning, inventory is the product that has held in the company’s supply network to satisfy demand.

In this article, you will learn the various reasons for holding supply chain inventory. 

Inventory and the Manufacturing Environment

Finished goods inventory is necessary for make to stock environments. Component inventory is essential in assemble to order settings. In make to order environments, if followed faithfully, no inventory should be necessary. Fundamentally inventory is essential due to the lag between when a product is demanded and when it can be supplied.

Sales and Statistical Forecasting Combined: Mixing Approaches for Improved Forecast Accuracy

Like the question of what inventory is, the reasons for holding inventory or stock inventory boil down to the fact the lead-times for production and procurement are longer than the customer demand lead-time.

Not all companies need to forecast all of their finished goods products. One example of this is defense contractors that frequently know years in advance, what they will build as they have firm contracts containing quantities and dates from the government.

However, even these companies are still required to create forecasts for the service parts that support the products that they sell.

How is Inventory Positioned? 

Inventory is positioned in different locations by the supply planning system. The assumptions that the software uses to perform positioning very much depends upon the supply planning method selected. Most methods of supply planning plan each location independently of other sites. Only inventory optimization software position inventory while considering the inventory position of the related sites. This is covered in the article The Multiechelon Definition.

What Makes Up Inventory?

The total inventory at a location is the overall stocking level, which is made up of cycle stock (the stock held between ordering) and safety stock (the stock designed to ensure there is enough stock to satisfy demand while mitigating demand and supply variability)

  • The total stocking level is not necessarily the correct amount of stock that should be held.
  • This is referred to as the target stocking level (only MEIO vendors refer to it like this, but it is quite a logical term)

What are the Functions of Inventory to Keep Inventory, or the Reasons for Holding Inventory and to Stock Inventory?

Fundamentally the functions of inventory are to allow the company or entity to have something available at the time of sale. The reason for holding inventory or to stock inventory is because, in the vast majority of cases, the lead time required by the customer, or the order period is shorter than the

The reason to keep inventory or to stock inventory is because, in the vast majority of cases, the lead time required by the customer, or the order period is shorter than the replenishment lead time. This is the reason to keep inventory or stock inventory because not to do so will result in not being able to fulfill demand.

Understanding how the various lead time connects is required to get to the essence of the functions of inventory.

The True Reasons for Holding Inventory

This is important to consider the exact reasons for holding inventory. This is because many Lean inventory advocates propose that stock can be drastically cut and, in fact, refer to inventory as a liability.

That is technically inaccurate. When inventory is excessive, that portion of the stock is a liability. But it is only really a liability if the inventory is either not used or if it is significantly marked down when sold.

The costs of carrying inventory for short periods is quite low. And of course, the cost of having stock out is much higher than having too much inventory. Therefore the reasons for holding inventory required illumination.

What is Inventory Planning and Stock Planning and the Stock on Hand?

Inventory planning or stock planning is the analytical process of determining the stocking levels throughout the supply network. This means planning for every product location combination in the supply network. Inventory planning or stock planning can be based on two primary approaches; one is forecast based planning, and the second is consumption based planning.

The stock on hand is the stock at each product location combination (if the overall supply network that is being discussed) that the company has in inventory. The stock on hand can also apply to a specific product location combination, such as a particular product material in a particular distribution center.

What is the Difference Between Forecast Based Planning and Consumption Based Planning?

These two major approaches, which contain a large amount of detail below each are the following:

  1. Forecast Based Planning: This is where a forecast is used by the system to drive the ordering logic.
  2. Consumption Based Planning: This is where the use of the stock drives the ordering logic.

There is no need for a company to choose exclusively forecast based planning or exclusively consumption based planning as all supply planning applications contain settings for both. And their forecast based planning or consumption based planning can be used for specific product location combinations.

What is an Inventory List, a list of Inventory Items, Product Inventory, or an Inventory Database?

The inventory list or the list of inventory items is the product inventory or inventory database that the company maintains. The inventory list or list of inventory items is not specific to a location, so it will always be far lower than when locations are brought into the analysis. This is why it is always important to specify whether one means the inventory database or the inventory database per location.

Any inventory list should be reviewed for whether some of the products on the list of inventory items should be removed. This is because the inventory list has a way of proliferating over time due to things like new product introductions.

Replenishment Lead Time, Procurement Lead Time, Manufacturing Lead Time and Shipping Lead Time or Lead Time for Delivery

The various lead times connect in the following way:

For Manufactured Products

Replenishment Lead Time = Manufacturing Lead Time + Procurement Lead Time (for raw materials, components, and subassemblies) + Shipping Lead Time or Lead Time for Delivery

For Procured Products

Replenishment Lead Time = Procurement Lead Time (for raw materials, components, and subassemblies) + Shipping Lead Time or Lead Time for Delivery

There is often discussion of expediting the various lead times. But in many cases, the only lead time that is reasonably capable of being expedited is the shipping lead time or lead time for delivery. The shipping lead time or lead time for delivery can typically only be expedited at a considerable expense (unless the product in question is of high value and low weight)

There are cases where the opposite occurs, where the total fulfillment lead time is shorter than the order lead time. Examples of this include defense contracting and custom suits. While it receives a very high amount of coverage, this is, in actuality, a tiny portion of the overall market that is as made to order. Make to order products tend to be premium priced, and many products that are thought to be made to order (such as configurable computers) are not made to order at all, but in fact, assemble to order.

Introduction to Inventory Segments

In this article, we will cover many of the different ways that inventory can be divided or segmented.

The Concept of Types of Inventory, Inventory Types, Categories of Inventory, Inventory Categories and Inventory Classification

There are many concepts of the types of inventory, inventory types, categories of inventory, or inventory categories that are used in supply chain management. Some of these have to do with how the types of inventory or inventory types are treated by the supply planning system. For instance, high-value product inventory may be set on different supply planning settings that low-value product inventory.

Categories of inventory or inventory categories can be based upon what that inventory does. That is, is the inventory a raw material, a finished good, a component, work in process, etc. Understanding these categories of inventory is important both for working with others (so you can have a shared understanding of the meaning of different types of inventory) but also to decide which of the inventory categories one may want to use themselves.

Target Stocking Level, Safety Stock Level, and the Initial Stock Level

One way of looking at inventory is the total amount of inventory in the system or the inventory at a stocking location in total. This can be viewed as the actual inventory versus the target inventory.

The target inventory or target inventory level is often made up of the following conceptual components.

  • TSL: The Target Stocking Level
  • SS: The Safety Stock Level
  • ISL: The Initial Stock Level

Each of these different stocks is shown in the following graphic:

tsl-or-safety-stock

  • Using this inventory optimization construct, a portion of the total stocking level is the safety stock, and another part is called the ISL or initial stocking level.
  • The initial stocking level would be the target stocking level if no supply or demand variability were to exist.

Segmentation Of Inventory by Inventory Usage

  • Inventory has multiple inventory uses.
  • It can be categorized into multiple inventory types.
  • By categorizing inventory and evaluating the allocation of the overall inventory into the different uses and types, one can gain a measure of the relative impact on the total inventory of these segments.
  • It is also valuable to consider what the actual function is the inventory that is carried.

Types of Inventory, Inventory Classification, and Inventory InfoGraphic

The following infographic shows the types of inventory and inventory classification by two different dimensions.

inventory-categories

Functions of Inventory: Anticipation Inventory, Goods in Transit or Stock in Transit, or Transportation Inventory, Pipeline Inventory, Lot Size Inventory, and Hedge Inventory or Speculative Inventory

Another way to categorize inventory is by its function.

  •  Fluctuation Inventory: Fluctuation inventory is inventory that is carried to account for variability in either demand or supply. The technical definition of this is safety stock.
  • Anticipation Inventory: Anticipation inventory is inventory that is held in anticipation of specific or unusual demand. All inventory is “anticipatory” in nature unless the stock has been sold already, but what makes anticipation inventory different from regular inventory is that there is a reason that can be pointed to for carrying more inventory than usual. A prevalent example of anticipation inventory is inventory carried specifically for weather events.
  • Goods in Transit, Stock in Transit, or Transportation Inventory: Goods in transit, stock in transit, or transportation inventory is stock that is somewhere in the process.
  • Pipeline Inventory: Pipeline inventory is a subset of transportation inventory. However, pipeline inventory is only the portion of the stock in transit inventory that it is outbound to the customer.
  • Lot Size Inventory: A lot size is an order size that, in many cases, is larger than the demand. The lot size is applied to keep companies from purchasing in “non-economic” quantities, which means volumes that would incur overly high transaction costs. The resultant lot size inventory, therefore, is the inventory that is carried not because of need, but because the lot size required the quantity to be increased. Lot size inventory is differentiated from inventory that is purely demand driven.
  • Hedge Inventory or Speculative Inventory: Hedge inventory or speculative inventory is inventory that is carried above what would ordinarily be carried to meet the demand for an uncertain purpose. If an entity were to conclude that some input material has a high chance of becoming more expensive in the future, then it would make sense for that entity to purchase and carry hedge inventory or speculative inventory. Which would reduce its cost of material acquisition. Hedge inventory or speculative inventory would tend to be the most common in raw materials, as the raw material can be converted into so many output items and never really becomes obsolete.

Classes of Inventory: Raw Materials Inventory and Raw Materials Examples, Components Inventory, Work in Process Inventory, Finished Goods Inventory

Another way to classify inventory is of its class.

  • Raw Materials Inventory: Raw Materials Inventory is the material that is in a fundamental state with little manufacturing or other processing performed by the supplier. Raw materials examples are things like gold, copper, grain, industrial powders, raw milk, etc. Raw materials examples will tend to be shipped in bulk.
  • Component Inventory: Component inventory is inventory that is a recognizable part or assembly that goes into the finished goods. When component inventory is held until a sales order is received, this is called assemble to order manufacturing.
  • Work In Process Inventory: Work in process inventory is material that has is somewhere along in the manufacturing process but is not yet a finished good or finished product.
  • Finished Goods Inventory: Finished goods inventory may be in storage at the factory right after manufacture, or finished goods inventory can be anywhere in the outbound supply chain. For entities that distribute an item rather than manufacture an item, these entities receive finished goods inventory from suppliers.

What is The Role of the Inventory Clerk and the Inventory Manager?

The inventory clerk is the individual how touches the inventory and does things like the physical inventory. However, the term inventory clerk is a bit dated. The inventory manager performs inventory planning and also expediting of things like purchase orders and production orders. While the inventory clerk is entirely execution-focused, the inventory manager must often keep inventory stock on hand below a certain cap, while attaining service level targets.

What is an Inventory Planning System?

An inventory planning system can refer to either an approach or to software applications that implements a particular inventory planning system.

Conclusion

The functions of inventory are to have the right amount of stock on hand when demands are received to meet expected service levels expectations. The foundational functions of inventory are to compensate for where the order lead time is shorter than the replenishment lead time.

While inventory planning and stock planning is certainly not a high profile activity, it is of great importance.

Inventory planning and stock planning has been dramatically changed through the introduction of both inventory planning or supply planning software and the use of general tools like spreadsheets. These tools allow the inventory manager and others to manage far more inventory more effectively than they did in the past.

Inventory is controlled by the supply planning system and is designed to be moved and stocked to satisfy future demand. The reasons for holding inventory are often not fully explained, and the costs of maintaining inventory versus not having inventory when it is needed, are in most situations, not quantified.

What We Do and Research Access

Using the Diagram

Hover over each bullet or plus sign to see more explanation. To move to a different bullet point, just “hover off” and then hover over the new bullet.

References

Safety Stock and Service Level Book

Safety Stock

Safety Stock and Service Levels: A New Approach

Important Features About Safety Stock

Safety stock is one of the most commonly discussed topics in supply chain management. Every MRP application and every advanced planning application on the market has either a field for safety stock or can calculate safety stock. However, companies continue to struggle with the right level to set it. Service levels are strongly related to safety stock. However, companies also struggle with how to set service levels.

How Systems Set Safety Stock

The vast majority of systems allow the setting of safety stock by multiple means (static, dynamic, adjustable with the forecast in days’ supply, etc..). However, most systems do not allow the safety stock to be set in a way that is considerate of the inventory that is available to be applied.By reading this book you will:

  • Understand the concepts and formula used for safety stock and service level setting.
  • Common ways of setting safety stock.
  • Service levels and inventory optimization applications.
  • The best real ways of setting both service levels and safety stock.

Chapters

Chapter 1: Introduction
Chapter 2: Safety Stock and Service Levels from a Conceptual Perspective
Chapter 3: The Common Ways of Setting Safety Stock
Chapter 4: The Common Issues with Safety Stock
Chapter 5: Common Issues with Service Level Setting
Chapter 6: Service Level Agreement
Chapter 7: Safety Stock and Service Levels in Inventory Optimization and Multi-Echelon Software
Chapter 8: A Simpler Approach to Comprehensively Setting Safety Stock and Service Levels

How to Best Understand to Replenish or Replenishment in SAP

Executive Summary

  • Supply chain planning systems are intended to improve replenishment.
  • We cover automatic replenishment system or a continuous replenishment program, retail replenishment, and replenishment triggers.
  • We cover where replenishment is found in SAP.

Introduction: Replenishment as the Objective of Supply Chain Planning

Replenishment is the name of the game for supply chain planning and is when orders are triggered in the supply network. This is how to replenish stock. In this article, you will learn how replenishment fits into the overall supply chain picture and where it is found in SAP, and we will explain the automatic replenishment system.

What is Replenishment?

The term “replenish,” or replenishment is natural to blend in one’s mind with purchasing. However, the replenishment strategy drives both procured materials and produced materials.

To replenish simply means to fill again. To replenish stock means to “fill the stock again.” But when we speak about a replenish definition, we’re not just discussing the inventory to be sold; we’re also talking about the raw materials needed to produce the inventory and support its manufacturing.  A replenish definition needs to explain that stock replenishment applies to a supply network.

What is a Replenishment Triggers in an Automatic Replenishment System?

Replenishment triggers are actions that cause replenishment to occur. This leads the system to replenish stock.

The term replenishment is easy to comingle in one’s mind with purchasing. But when we speak about replenishment, we’re not just discussing the inventory to be sold, we’re also talking about the raw materials needed to produce the inventory and support its manufacturing. To understand this complex system of supplies that will need replenishing, let’s talk about supply networks.

The analysis work that planners engage in stems from this question.

When will each stocking location run out of any given material good?

Supply planning systems only need to replenish the stocking location when there is good reason to do so, as the objective of supply planning is to minimize inventory and maximize service level.

Across a supply network, there are both planning and execution triggers. Some of these triggers are system determined – either ERP, external supply planning system, or warehouse management. Some triggers are external to the system.

No matter whether the trigger is system generated or generated by a buyer or IT specialist, all replenishments are, at some point, reflected in the supply planning system with both a transaction (acquisition or goods or sale or product) and a change to the stock holding position at the stocking location.

About Execution Triggers

Supply chain management can be segmented into planning and execution areas. Planning looks into the more distant future and attempts to make decisions that put the supply chain in the best possible position to meet demand given certain restrictions.

Execution is the actual doing, the execution of the plan. For instance, the creation of a purchase requisition does not cause anything to happen, because a purchase requisition is a planning transaction, not an execution transaction. Planning is just simulation — figuring out what to do before one does it. However, once a purchase requisition is converted into a purchase order – now the order is sent to a supplier, and, at that point, the “wheels” begin turning. Accounting entries are posted, and physical things start to happen within the supply chain.

Where Are Execution Triggers Located?

  • Execution triggers exist in both ERP systems and warehouse management or WM systems.
  • One example of an execution replenishment trigger in an automatic replenishment system that will be explained to illustrate the differences between a planning trigger and an execution trigger is the KANBAN functionality within some ERP systems.

Replenishment Terms

Replenishment has a wide number of related terms that are used in supply chain management.

  1. Inventory Replenishment or Stock Replenishment
  2. Replenishment Stock or Replenish Stock
  3. Inventory Replenishment Methods
  4. Inventory Replenishment System
  5. Replenishment Planning
  6. Automatic Replenishment System, Auto Replenishment or Continuous Replenishment Program
  7. Retail Replenishment

Let us go over each of these:

1. Replenish Stock Term #1: Inventory Replenishment or Stock Replenishment

Inventory replenishment or stock replenishment is the act of replenishing the inventory in the system. Inventory replenishment or stock replenishment can be considered a primary objective of supply planning as it provides replenishment stock to the right locations.

2. Replenish Stock Term #2: Replenishment Stock or Replenish Stock

Replenishment stock or replenish stock is stock that is brought into the supply network for replenishment purposes. Replenishment stock or replenish stock is not usually called out as such or specifically, as it is implied that it make to stock manufacturing environments, the stock is all in some way replenishment stock or replenish stock.

3. Replenish Stock Term #3 Inventory Replenishment Methods

Inventory replenishment methods are the techniques used to make decisions as to how much and when to bring in replenishment stock. Inventory replenishment methods are mathematical. One inventory replenishment method is called the reorder point while another inventory replenishment method is MRP. Inventory replenishment methods are implemented in the digital era with an inventory replenishment system.

4. Replenish Stock Term #4 Inventory Replenishment System

The inventory replenishment system is software that performs the calculation of replenishment using the planned stock on hand, planned issues and receipts, and sometimes goals like service levels to calculate the replenishment stock. The most common inventory replenishment system is ERP, which runs a procedure called MRP combined with consumption-based methods like reorder point. But many other systems are more sophisticated in terms of replenishment calculation than what is found in ERP systems.

Overall, the inventory replenishment system is strongly connected with the concept of replenishment planning.

5. Replenish Stock Term #5: Replenishment Planning

  • Replenishment planning is the forward calculation of replenishment stock.
  • Replenishment can be execution in orientation, such as when an empty bin triggers a replenishment signal, or it can be replenishment planning focused where the replenishment order is based on forward-looking calculation.

6. Replenish Stock Term #6: Automatic Replenishment System, Auto Replenishment or Continuous Replenishment Program

Automatic Replenishment system, auto replenishment or a continuous replenishment program is simply automated replenishment logic. The use of the terms automatic replenishment system, auto replenishment, or continuous replenishment program harken back to the pre-computerized age when stock replenishment was calculated periodically and by hand. Today some consulting companies and software companies use the term auto replenishment or continuous replenishment program as a sort of buzzword. Automatic replenishment system, auto replenishment, or continuous replenishment should simply be synonymous with the inventory system.

7. Replenish Stock Term #7: Retail Replenishment

For whatever reason, replenishment is often associated with replenishment stock sent to retail locations.

Interestingly, even SAP has a software application called Forecast Replenishment or FR, which is all about retail replenishment. It’s unclear why this association with retail exists, but it is not accurate. Replenishment applies equally to all parts of the supply network, not only to retail replenishment. Retail replenishment is the same activity as replenishing any other location.

Replenishment Planning Activities

The analysis work that planners stem from this question:

When will each stocking location run out of any given material good?

Supply planning systems only need to replenish the stocking location when there is good reason to do so, as the objective of supply planning is to minimize inventory and maximize service level. Across a supply network, there are both planning and execution triggers. Some of these triggers are system determined – either ERP, external supply planning system, or warehouse management.

Supply Planning System Generated Replenishment Triggers

These stock replenishment triggers are created through planning runs – or automated procedures that take demand or consumption and create automated replenishment recommendations. The demand-oriented supply planning system replenishment triggers are forecasts and sales orders – or projected demand and confirmed demand. The consumption-oriented replenishment triggers are based upon the monitoring of stocking locations – and triggered when the stocking location falls below a preset level.

  1. Forecasts: This is unconfirmed demand. It is what the company thinks it will sell.
  2. Sales Orders: This is a confirmed demand.
  3. Reorder Point: This is a trigger based on the stock level. If the stock level or the projected stock level (some supply planning systems will trigger a replenishment based upon a projected stock level rather than a current stock level) is below the order point, then a new replenishment order is created.

Execution Replenishment Triggers

Supply chain management can be segmented into planning and execution areas. Planning looks into the more distant future and attempts to make decisions that put the supply chain in the best possible position to meet demand given certain restrictions. Execution triggers exist in both ERP systems and warehouse management or WM systems.

CPFR

It can be difficult even for supply chain people to understand how replenishment, is different from regular inventory and procurement management. Part of it is that replenishment is a general term meaning to restock or refill simply. Replenishment is highly connected to a concept called CPFR – Collaborative Planning, Forecasting, and Replenishment.

This is not to say that replenishment cannot occur without it, only that it is a driving concept behind replenishment and replenishment functionality in SAP.

We have included a definition of CPFR from Wikipedia below:

“CPFR seeks cooperative management of inventory through joint visibility and replenishment of products throughout the supply chain. Information shared between suppliers and retailers aids in planning and satisfying customer demands through a supportive system of shared information.”Wikipedia

Case Study of CPFR

The case study always mentioned in both CPFR and replenishment is Wal-Mart. Wal-Mart primarily collaborated very actively with some of its largest suppliers to share information so that inventory balances in stores were known and possibly even controlled by inventory management at the supplier.

Applicability of the Wal-Mart Case Study To an Automatic Replenishment System Generally

While Wal-Mart is known for a high in-stock position and low-cost replenishment, a few problems are attempting to generalize the CPFR experience to other accounts.

  • Wal-Mart is the largest retailer by a wide margin in the world, and this means they had and have the leverage to push through CPFR, smaller retailers do not have this same bargaining power.
  • Wal-Mart is known for its very effective IT investment and has been a leader in this field for some time, including satellite uplinks at its stores. Not every retailer has the scale economies to benefit from this type of IT investment.
  • Wal-Mart is firmly operationally and industrial engineering oriented. However, many retailers are not. The fashion retailers – The Limited, etc.., are run by merchants, not industrial engineers, so they lack the orientation and capability of Wal-Mart in IT or operations.

Where is Replenishment Found in SAP?

Replenishment functionality in SAP exists in the following areas:

  • SAP IS Retail
  • SAP PP
  • SAP SCM F&R
  • SAP SCM SNC

Conclusion

The terms…

  • Inventory Replenishment
  • Stock Replenishment
  • Replenishment Stock
  • Replenish Stock
  • Inventory Replenishment Methods
  • Inventory Replenishment System
  • Retail Replenishment
  • Replenishment Planning
  • Automatic Replenishment System
  • Auto Replenishment
  • Continuous Replenishment Program

…are all used in supply chain management.

They all relate to what is the primary objective of supply planning, which is to move stock into the system at the right place and at the right time.

The concept of what is referred to as an “automatic replenishment system” really just means the computerization of replenishment. At one time, there was a term called periodic ordering. This is a term applied in the pre-computerized period where groups of product locations were placed upon a schedule for recalculation because they need to be calculated by hand.

What We Do and Research Access

Using the Diagram

Hover over each bullet or plus sign to see more explanation. To move to a different bullet point, just “hover off” and then hover over the new bullet.

References

Replenishment Triggers Book

Replenishment Triggers

Getting the Terminology Right

The terms make to order and make to stock roll quickly off of people’s tongues regardless of their knowledge of other supply chain conditions. Many executives speak about “moving to make to order environment.” For most companies, this simply is not realistic. And many businesses that say they do make to order/configure to order/engineer to order are doing assemble to order planning.

The Universality of The Manufacturing Environment Type

These terms are specific types of manufacturing environments. They are embedded in almost all supply planning applications ranging from the most basic ERP to the most sophisticated advanced planning system. However, each manufacturing environment leads to some implications, implications that are most often not completely understood.

Getting Clear on Requirements Strategies

Requirements strategies are what control what drives the replenishment of supply in systems. In most cases, the need strategies control whether the forecast or the sales order triggers replenishment.

This book cuts down the amount of time that is required for people in companies to understand the relationship between manufacturing environments (the business) and requirements strategies (the technology setting in the supply planning application).

By reading this book you will learn:

  • What are the major manufacturing environments and what determines which manufacturing environment a company follows?
  • How do the different manufacturing environments impact how inventory is carried?
  • How are the various production environments configured in software?
  • What is mass customization, and how accurate is useful is this concept in real life?
  • What is the interaction between variant configuration and the manufacturing environment and the bill of materials?

Chapters

Chapter 1: Introduction
Chapter 2: The Different Manufacturing Environments
Chapter 3: Triggering Replenishment
Chapter 4: Requirements Strategies
Chapter 5: The Make to Order Illusion
Chapter 6: The Limitations to the Concept of Mass Customization
Chapter 7: Forecast Consumption
Chapter 8: Variant Configuration in SAP ERP
Chapter 9: Conclusion

How to Best Understand What the SKU Stands For and the SKU Number

Executive Summary

  • The term SKU stands for something specific and is associated with the SKU number.
  • The SKU number tells us important things about the properties of the SKU.

Introduction

SKU stands for “stock keeping unit” is a commonly used term in supply chain management. According to the website Lokad, an SKU is…

“Refers to a specific item stored to a specific location. The SKU is intended as the most disaggregated level when dealing with inventory.”

A little later on, I will discuss why this explanation of the term is inconsistent with something called the SKU number. Understanding what the name SKU stands for means knowing a bit how the term first developed.

Understanding what the term SKU stands for means knowing a bit how the name first developed.

Origin of What the Term SKU Stands For

The term Stock Keeping Unit was initially used at the store level. So if one goes into a Target, each product has a bar code and is called a Stock Keeping Unit. That is a distinct item from any other item in that store.

And for that purpose, the term works perfectly well.

The problem arises when one works in supply chain management, and that same Stock Keeping Unit is in many locations, including warehouses. Therefore what the term SKU stands for does not translate well outside of the single store environment.

SKU Numbers

SKU numbers are internal numbers and letters that are used for products. Sometimes the SKU number can have a code that is human-readable build into it. For instance, the following SKU number could apply for socks.

  • NK-SK-BL-8-12-0023

The code of this type of SKU number would be the following:

Manufacturer, Color, Size, Model Number. Therefore this is

Therefore this SKU number tells us that this is an (NK) Nike, (SK) Sock, (8-12) Size 8 to 12, (0023) model number.

Most SKU numbers are short, and therefore, one has to know the “code” to read them. An SKU number both identifies the SKU from other SKUs but also provides information about the SKU to the individual/company/entity that maintains the SKU.

Location as Part of the SKU Number?

Something else interesting about SKU numbers is that they do not have a location component. I have never seen an SKU number that looked like the following:

  • NK-SK-BL-8-12-0023-SDDC

That is the last add-on being (SDDC) San Diego Distribution Center.

This is because it makes no sense to have a location appended to an SKU. After all, an SKU travels through the supply chain, and if it had a location appended to the SKU number, then every time that SKU was transferred it would have to have its SKU number altered. That would create a serious problem.

Is the Term SKU a Useful Term?

SKU, which stands for “stock keeping unit” is a commonly used term in supply chain management. According to the website Lokad, an SKU is…

refers to a specific item stored to a specific location. The SKU is intended as the most disaggregated level when dealing with inventory.

That is not how I have found the term to be used in practice. Often when people use the name SKU, they only mean the “product” divorced from its location. For years the term SKU-Location or “SKUL” was commonly used in companies and still is.

The Problem with the Term SKU

The term Stock Keeping Unit was initially used at the store level. So if one goes into a Target, each product has a bar code and is called a Stock Keeping Unit. That is a distinct item from any other item in that store. And for that purpose, the term works perfectly well. The problem arises when one works in supply chain management, and that same Stock Keeping Unit is in many locations, including warehouses.

In that environment, the term SKU, which has some confusion as to whether it is tied to a location or not linked to a location, is more confusing than helpful. I can say this because I have had repeated discussions where I have to ask, or the other person has to ask if they or I mean an SKU or an SKU location combination. For this reason, I recommend the use of a different term.

That is the term product location combination or “PLC” for short or even the “PL.”

The Product Location Combination, the PLC

The term “product location combination” is excellent because it is impossible to confuse with any other meaning. All supply networks are made up of a mix of goods at locations. If we look at a company that carries 100 products and has 10 locations, then 1000 product site combinations are the maximum number of potential product location combinations.

Counting Valid PLCs

In most cases, the actual number will be significantly lower than this as companies don’t carry every product at every location. On the other hand, when on looks in the supply chain system, there are often many more product location combinations than the theoretical maximum because of old product locations that have not been removed from the system. Therefore another important distinction is how many “active” PLCs exist in the system.

Conclusion

  • The term SKU has been around for a very long time.
  • What the term SKU stands for is not descriptive that it does not tell the listener what they want to know.
  • The term SKU does not include within it, whether it refers to a location, and opinions vary as to what its meaning is.
  • When you use the term SKU, it may have a different meaning to the listener.
  • SKU numbers are important components to supply chain management, and a SKU number both identifies the SKU from other SKUs and provides information about that SKU.

What We Do and Research Access

Using the Diagram

Hover over each bullet or plus sign to see more explanation. To move to a different bullet point, just “hover off” and then hover over the new bullet.

References

https://www.lokad.com/stock-keeping-unit-(sku)-definition

I cover supply planning and stocking principles in the following book.

Safety Stock and Service Level Book

Safety Stock

Safety Stock and Service Levels: A New Approach

Important Features About Safety Stock

Safety stock is one of the most commonly discussed topics in supply chain management. Every MRP application and every advanced planning application on the market has either a field for safety stock or can calculate safety stock. However, companies continue to struggle with the right level to set it. Service levels are strongly related to safety stock. However, companies also struggle with how to set service levels.

How Systems Set Safety Stock

The vast majority of systems allow the setting of safety stock by multiple means (static, dynamic, adjustable with the forecast in days’ supply, etc..). However, most systems do not allow the safety stock to be set in a way that is considerate of the inventory that is available to be applied.By reading this book you will:

  • Understand the concepts and formula used for safety stock and service level setting.
  • Common ways of setting safety stock.
  • Service levels and inventory optimization applications.
  • The best real ways of setting both service levels and safety stock.

Chapters

Chapter 1: Introduction
Chapter 2: Safety Stock and Service Levels from a Conceptual Perspective
Chapter 3: The Common Ways of Setting Safety Stock
Chapter 4: The Common Issues with Safety Stock
Chapter 5: Common Issues with Service Level Setting
Chapter 6: Service Level Agreement
Chapter 7: Safety Stock and Service Levels in Inventory Optimization and Multi-Echelon Software
Chapter 8: A Simpler Approach to Comprehensively Setting Safety Stock and Service Levels