References

References for Brightwork Articles on Slavery

Executive Summary

  • These are the references that were used for our related articles.

Learn why so few entities in the IT space include references in their work. 

Introduction

This is the reference list for the IT discrimination articles, as well as interesting quotes from these references at Brightwork Research & Analysis.

You can select the article title to be taken to the article.

Reference #1: Article Titled: 

Where Did African Slaves Come From And Where Did They Go?

https://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/africa/features/storyofafrica/9chapter3.shtml

https://www.globalslaveryindex.org/region/sub-saharan-africa/

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2009/nov/18/africans-apologise-slave-trade

https://blogs.timesofisrael.com/the-silence-about-black-slavery-in-the-arab-world/

https://www.globalslaveryindex.org/

*https://economix.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/02/24/the-ieconomy-how-much-do-foxconn-workers-make/

*https://www.antislavery.org/what-we-do/past-projects/india-gulf-migration/

https://www.news.com.au/travel/world-travel/middle-east/dubai-migrant-workers-the-hidden-slaves-behind-glamour-city/news-story/b3997ed5b013870424e84d78a561946c

https://www.thoughtco.com/trans-atlantic-slave-trade-timeline-4156303

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/mar/19/qatar-world-cup-workers-india-nepal-cheated-deceived

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slavery_in_Brazil

https://study.com/academy/lesson/arab-slave-trade-in-africa.html

*https://www.amazon.com/dp/B07BFX4KX9

*https://inequality.org/facts/global-inequality/

https://allafrica.com/stories/201504060550.html

*https://www.politicalislam.com/kafir/

https://www.slaverysite.com/Body/maps.htm

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arab_slave_trade

https://www.topix.com/forum/afam/TIJ30VEOLFORIPVQA

https://www.quora.com/What-happened-to-all-of-the-Africans-and-their-descendants-involved-in-the-East-African-slave-trade

*https://www.amren.com/features/2017/02/black-slavery-middle-east/

https://www.slavevoyages.org/assessment/intro-maps

https://wikiislam.net/wiki/Muslim_Statistics_-_Slavery

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bagamoyo

https://theconversation.com/the-story-of-east-africas-role-in-the-transatlantic-slave-trade-43194

https://themuslimissue.wordpress.com/2012/08/27/the-arab-slave-trade-and-200-million-non-muslim-slaves-of-all-skin-colors/

*https://originalpeople.org/4-myths-about-the-history-of-american-slavery/

*https://atlantablackstar.com/2014/06/02/10-facts-about-the-arab-enslavement-of-black-people-not-taught-in-schools/4/

Reference #2: Article Titled:

How Muslims Lie About the History of Islamic Slavery

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Islamic_views_on_slavery

Al-Tabari

“Arabs are the most noble people in the lineage, the most prominent, the best in deeds. We were the first to respond to the call of the Prophet. We are Allah’s helpers and the vizers of His Messenger. We fight people until they believe in Allah. He who believes in Allah and His Messenger has protected his life and possessions from us. As for one who disbelieves, we will fight him forever in Allah’s Cause. Killing him is a small matter for us.”

Reference #3: Article Titled:

The Sex Motivation of Islam and its Sex Slavery

https://www.thesun.co.uk/news/4666880/yazidi-sex-slaves-tell-how-sick-isis-predators-raped-them-to-make-them-muslim/

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rape_in_Islamic_law

https://nypost.com/2017/11/18/i-was-was-an-isis-slave-and-now-im-fighting-back/

https://www.quora.com/Is-the-72-Virgins-story-for-Muslims-a-western-invention

https://wikiislam.net/wiki/72_Virgins

*https://www.nytimes.com/2015/08/14/world/middleeast/isis-enshrines-a-theology-of-rape.html

*https://www.opendoorsusa.org/christian-persecution/stories/hidden-wounds-christians-say-rape-is-common-persecution-method-against-women/

*https://www.nytimes.com/2016/03/13/world/middleeast/to-maintain-supply-of-sex-slaves-isis-pushes-birth-control.html?action=click&contentCollection=world&module=NextInCollection&region=Footer&pgtype=article&version=series&rref=collection%2Fseries%2Fstate-of-terror

Reference #4: Article Titled:

Is the Wealth in European Based Countries Based Upon African Slavery?

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Swedish_overseas_colonies

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scramble_for_Africa

*https://punkonomics.org/2014/10/16/post-colonial-africa/

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slavery_in_ancient_Rome

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slavery_among_Native_Americans_in_the_United_States

https://www.smithsonianmag.com/smithsonian-institution/how-native-american-slaveholders-complicate-trail-tears-narrative-180968339/

Interesting facts about slavery in Rome.

New slaves were primarily acquired by wholesale dealers who followed the Roman armies.[36]Many people who bought slaves wanted strong slaves, mostly men.[37] Child slaves cost less than adults[38] although other sources state their price as higher.[39] Julius Caesar once sold the entire population of a conquered region in Gaul, no fewer than 53,000 people, to slave dealers on the spot.[40]

Because the Romans wanted to know exactly what they were buying, slaves were presented naked. The dealer was required to take a slave back within six months if the slave had defects that were not manifest at the sale, or make good the buyer’s loss.[41]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slavery_in_Brazil

The enslavement in Brazil was 360 degree in nature, as this quote explains

Slavery was not only endured by native Indians or blacks. As the distinction between prisoners of war and slaves was blurred, the enslavement, although at a lesser scale, of captured Europeans also took place. The Dutch were reported to have sold Portuguese, captured in Brazil, as slaves,[22] and of using African slaves in Dutch Brazil[23] There are also reports of Brazilians enslaved by barbary pirates while crossing the ocean.[24]

The slaves who were freed and returned to Africa, the Agudás, continued to be seen as slaves by the African indigenous population. As they had left Africa as slaves, when they returned although now as free people, they were not accepted in the local society who saw them as slaves.[32] In Africa they also took part in the slave trade now as slave merchants.[33]

http://users.hist.umn.edu/~ruggles/hist3797/slavery.pdf

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slavery_in_Mauritania

Reference #5: Article Titled:

Were The Portuguese the First to Bring Slavery to Brazil?

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slavery_in_Brazil

Reference #6: Article Titled:

Did African Americans Enslave Liberian Africans? 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liberia

http://en.lisapoyakama.org/liberia-the-unsuccessful-return-of-african-descendants/

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liberian_Americans

https://www.theguardian.com/books/extracts/story/0,,493533,00.html

https://www.histclo.com/act/work/slave/cou/afr/lib/sc-lib.html

*https://www.amazon.com/Another-America-Liberia-Former-Slaves-ebook/dp/B009LRWHVI

Reference #7: Article Titled:

Did Slavery Ever Stop in Arab Countries?

*https://originalpeople.org/4-myths-about-the-history-of-american-slavery/

https://www.news.com.au/travel/world-travel/middle-east/dubai-migrant-workers-the-hidden-slaves-behind-glamour-city/news-story/

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Qatar

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/mar/19/qatar-world-cup-workers-india-nepal-cheated-deceived

*https://www.amazon.com/dp/B009R6GKDE/

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_slavery_in_the_Muslim_world

Early on in Muslim history they were used in plantation labor similar to that in the Americas, but this was abandoned after harsh treatment led to destructive slave revolts,[2] the most notable being the Zanj Rebellion of 869–883.[3] Slaves were widely employed in irrigation, mining, and animal husbandry, but the most common uses were as soldiers, guards, and domestic workers.[2] Many rulers relied on military slaves, often in huge standing armies, and slaves in administration to such a degree that the slaves were sometimes in a position to seize power. Among black slaves, there were roughly two females to every one male.[2]

In Singapore as late as 1891, there was a regular trade in Chinese slaves by Muslim slaveowners, with girls and women sold for concubinage.[77]

Reference #8: Article Titled:

How Different Was Slavery from the Feudal System?

*https://originalpeople.org/4-myths-about-the-history-of-american-slavery/

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Qatar

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/mar/19/qatar-world-cup-workers-india-nepal-cheated-deceived

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Daenerys_Targaryen

*https://www.amazon.com/dp/B009R6GKDE/

Reference #9: Article Titled:

How is Trickle Down Economics Working for Arab Slave States?

*https://originalpeople.org/4-myths-about-the-history-of-american-slavery/

*https://www.ozy.com/fast-forward/rising-in-the-middle-east-forced-labor-from-africa/82554

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Qatar

https://www.ituc-csi.org/new-ituc-report-qatar-profit-and

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/mar/19/qatar-world-cup-workers-india-nepal-cheated-deceived

*https://www.amazon.com/dp/B009R6GKDE/

Reference #10: Article Titled:

Why Do the Most Europe Influenced African Countries Have the Least Slavery?

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Gambia

https://www.globalslaveryindex.com

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Somalia

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mauritania

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Botswana

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sudan

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/South_Sudan

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chad

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eritrea

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mali

https://www.spiegel.de/international/world/confronting-the-approach-demographic-explosion-in-africa-a-1253189.html

Reference #11: Article Titled:

What Percentage of the Atlantic Slave Trade Slaves Went to the US?

https://www.slaverysite.com/Body/maps.htm

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arab_slave_trade

*https://atlantablackstar.com/2014/06/02/10-facts-about-the-arab-enslavement-of-black-people-not-taught-in-schools/4/

Reference #12: Article Titled:

Did White Slave Traders Steal Slaves from Africa?

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slavery_in_Africa

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slavery_in_Russia

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slavery_in_ancient_Rome

Interesting quotes from this article.

 Julius Caesar once sold the entire population of a conquered region in Gaul, no fewer than 53,000 people, to slave dealers on the spot.

Sometimes slaves stood on revolving stands, and around each slave for sale hung a type of plaque describing their origin, health, character, intelligence, education, and other information pertinent to purchasers. Prices varied with age and quality, with the most valuable slaves fetching high prices. Because the Romans wanted to know exactly what they were buying, slaves were presented naked. The dealer was required to take a slave back within six months if the slave had defects that were not manifest at the sale, or make good the buyer’s loss.[41] Slaves to be sold with no guarantee were made to wear a cap at the auction.

Sometimes slaves stood on revolving stands, and around each slave for sale hung a type of plaque describing their origin, health, character, intelligence, education, and other information pertinent to purchasers. Prices varied with age and quality, with the most valuable slaves fetching high prices. Because the Romans wanted to know exactly what they were buying, slaves were presented naked. The dealer was required to take a slave back within six months if the slave had defects that were not manifest at the sale, or make good the buyer’s loss.[41] Slaves to be sold with no guarantee were made to wear a cap at the auction.

In the Late Republic, about half the gladiators who fought in Roman arenas were slaves, though the most skilled were often free volunteers.[49] Successful gladiators were occasionally rewarded with freedom. However gladiators, being trained warriors and having access to weapons, were potentially the most dangerous slaves.

servus publicus was a slave owned not by a private individual, but by the Roman people. Public slaves worked in temples and other public buildings both in Rome and in the municipalities. Most performed general, basic tasks as servants to the College of Pontiffsmagistrates, and other officials. Some well-qualified public slaves did skilled office work such as accounting and secretarial services. They were permitted to earn money for their personal use.

The testimony of a slave could not be accepted in a court of law[52] unless the slave was tortured—a practice based on the belief that slaves in a position to be privy to their masters’ affairs would be too virtuously loyal to reveal damaging evidence unless coerced.

Several emperors began to grant more rights to slaves as the empire grew. Claudius announced that if a slave was abandoned by his master, he became free. Nero granted slaves the right to complain against their masters in a court. And under Antoninus Pius, a master who killed a slave without just cause could be tried for homicide.[65] Legal protection of slaves continued to grow as the empire expanded. It became common throughout the mid to late 2nd century AD to allow slaves to complain of cruel or unfair treatment by their owners.

Rome forbade the harbouring of fugitive slaves, and professional slave-catchers were hired to hunt down runaways. Advertisements were posted with precise descriptions of escaped slaves, and offered rewards.

The Stoics taught that all men were manifestations of the same universal spirit, and thus by nature equal. Stoicism also held that external circumstances (such as being enslaved) did not truly impede a person from practicing the Stoic ideal of inner self-mastery: It has been said that one of the more important Roman stoics, Epictetus, spent his youth as a slave.

Both the Stoics and some early Christians opposed the ill treatment of slaves, rather than slavery itself.

Reference #13: Article Titled:

Why Do Most Blacks Consider Themselves Experts on Slavery?

https://www.colorlines.com/articles/henry-louis-gates-dangerously-wrong-slave-history

*https://www.nytimes.com/2010/04/23/opinion/23gates.html

*https://www.pbs.org/wnet/african-americans-many-rivers-to-cross/history/how-many-slaves-landed-in-the-us/

Reference #14: Article Titled:

Why Blacks Want to Write Whites Out of Making Slavery Illegal in White Countries

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/White_savior

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/jul/05/zambians-hit-back-at-white-saviour-gap-yah-memoir

*https://www.amazon.co.uk/Congos-Shadow-Louise-Linton/dp/1522708049

https://www.telegraph.co.uk/women/life/gap-year-in-africa-book–telegraph-statement/